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Germany is the EU’s largest consumer of Russian natural gas. The threat of weaponizing Russian supplies as we approach winter persists, and Gazprom’s recent cut to Nord Stream 1 volumes to 20% of capacity from June 27 onwards is a case in point. To put the volumes at stake into perspective, this article provides a quantitative assessment of the pre-war baseline, the current status quo, as well as possible future developments. Our conclusion examines the degree to which measures that are currently being taken by Germany can counter cuts in Russian supply.
Kuwait's Al-Zour Refinery has started operations at one of its CDUs a few days ago. The 615 kbd refinery is one of the largest globally, representing the most significant addition to global refining capacity in years and the largest addition until Nigeria’s Dangote plant eventually starts up later this decade.
As the United States is establishing itself as one of the world’s top crude oil exporters and getting its oil a wide range of destinations, it is increasingly important to have accurate and timely information on American crude export flows, especially at a time when a tightly supplied market riddled with geopolitical uncertainty. As a technology-driven company, Kpler makes the most use of AIS information, comprehensive and regularly updated mapping of all crude oil terminals as well as smart tracking algorithms, making ourselves in the position to ensure the highest level of data accuracy of US oil flows, provide even more immediate and reliable data then EIA and ride the waves of the ever-changing global crude oil market.
The investment represents the first external fundraising initiative for Kpler which had been bootstrapped since its foundation in 2014.
Since the invasion, there has been an increase in the number of vessels operating in the Black Sea with lost AIS signals for one day or more, but there is no indication yet that this increase is linked to suspicious behaviour including covert ship-to-ship (STS) activity.